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Water Supply in High Rise Buildings

Water Supply in High Rise Buildings

    Introduction:-


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    Water Supply in High Rise Buildings

    In General

    • Designing skyscrapers is an extremely complicated art that integrates several different logistic operations and utilities.
    • Plumbing is one of the more challenging problems to solve due to the loss of pressure as water travels up a vertical pipe.
    • As the building gets taller, another problem arises as the water pressure at the bottom of a vertical pipe becomes too great for safe operation and building codes.

    The Solution

    • The early solution to this problem was a water tank mounted on the top of a building with fill pumps at the bottom of the building, a simple gravity down feed arrangement.
    • Today, a system of pressure-reducing valves and sub-risers is used to manage the inconsistent water pressure throughout a skyscraper. 
    • Pressure-reducing valves reduce the pressure at the bottom of the building, while sub-risers increase the pressure for the skyscraper's upper floors. 

    DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN HIGH-RISE STRUCTURES
        - Direct Supply System
        - Direct Pumping Systems
        - Hydro-pneumatic Systems
        - Overhead Tank Distribution (Down Feed Arrangement)

    DIRECT SUPPLY SYSTEM 
        - Useful when pressure is available round the clock at the topmost floor.
        - The pressure may not be available so generally floors above 2nd or 3rd storey face shortfall of water pressure.

    DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEMS

    • Water is pumped directly into the distribution system without the aid of any OHT except for flushing purposes.
    • Pumps - controlled by pressure switch installed on the line.
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    Direct Pumping System Applicable Where There is Continuous Demand on System
    • Useful in buildings where a certain amount of constant use of water occurs.
    • The system requires a constant and reliable supply of power.
    • Power failure – the breakdown of the water supply system.

    HYDRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

    • Variation of the direct pumping system.
    • An airtight pressure vessel is installed on the line to regulate the operation of the pumps.

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    Hydro-Pneumatic System

    • The pressure switch installed in the pressure vessel/tank switches off after reaching the predetermined pressure when the operating pump is put to stop.
    • An Air compressor is necessary to feed the water with air to maintain the air-water ratio.
    • This system eliminates the need for an OHT and supplies water at a much higher pressure resulting in even distribution of water on all floors.

    OVERHEAD TANK DISTRIBUTION (Down Feed Arrangement)

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    Overhead Tank Distribution



    • The system comprises water to one or more OHT placed at the topmost location of the hydraulic zone.
    • Water distribution- through pipes generally located on the terrace through gravity (down feed) 

    WATER SUPPLY FOR MULTYSTORIED  BUILDINGS

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    WATER SUPPLY FOR MULTYSTORIED  BUILDINGS
    • In very tall buildings it is advantageous to use separate drinking and water ground, intermediate, and roof level cisterns. The separate drinking and cold water cisterns spread a load of water storage up the building and limit pressure in the distributing both to drinking outlets and sanitary appliances. 

    HOT WATER SUPPLY

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    Water-Supply-in-High-Rise-Buildings,water-supply,water-supply-system,water-supply-network,

    HOT WATER SUPPLY

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    WATER STORAGE UNIT FOR HOT AND COLD WATER

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    Water-Supply-in-High-Rise-Buildings,water-supply,water-supply-system,water-supply-network,

    HOT WATER SUPPLY

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    Water-Supply-in-High-Rise-Buildings,water-supply,water-supply-system,water-supply-network,




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    • Dividing the building into different zones
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    Drainage in High Rise Buildings

    Drainage


    • Drainage is another common issue in skyscrapers and is often just as difficult to solve as water pressure problems. 
    • When water falls vertically down a pipe, the water will adhere to the pipe's walls until the pipe's cross-sectional area is about one-fourth full. 
    • Once the gravity propelled water hits a horizontal bend in the pipe, the flow velocity drops dramatically and fills the pipe considerably more due to the lost speed. 
    • It is common practice to use relief or yoke vents to slow the water before it encounters a horizontal flow change. 
    • The piping at the base of a vertical drainage column must be secured, as to reduce the risk of breaking joints.

    Venting

    • Once the water is raised and used, it is discharged to a drainage system that includes a venting system- responsible for the flow of air in the drainage piping network.
    • Air is critical to the drainage process because drainage flow is caused by sloping pipes, and the motive force is gravity. 
    • Absent air, the drainage would range from erratic to nonexistent. 
    • When the water in a pipe flows to a lower area, air must be added to replace the water, or a negative pressure zone will occur.
    • If this zone is near a fixture, air will be drawn into the drainage system through the fixture trap with an easily identified gulping sound and very slow drain performance. 
    • This condition leads to poor performance throughout the drainage system and traps seal loss due to siphoning or blowout.
    • It is however okay to place air vents in the fixtures themselves to increase water flow. 
    • As the number of fixtures increases, venting needs do as well, and a venting system evolves, with the branch, circuit, and loop vents at the appropriate locations.
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    Water-Supply-in-High-Rise-Buildings,water-supply,water-supply-system,water-supply-network,



    • Aside from relieving pressure in the drainage system, the vent system allows air to circulate in both directions in response to the fluctuating flow in the drainage system. 
    • In many high-rise vent designs, where stacks need to offset horizontally on a given floor, a relief vent is required.

    Drainage System

    The following are the piping systems adopted in drainage of the high rise structures:

    • Two-Pipe System
    • One-Pipe System
    • Single Stack System
    • Single Stack System (Partially Ventilated)

    TWO-PIPE SYSTEM

    • Ideal when the location of toilets and stacks for the WC’s and waste fittings is not uniform or repetitive.
    • In large buildings and houses with open ground and gardens, the sullage water from the waste system can be usefully utilized for gardening and agriculture.
    • In high rises, the sullage is treated within the building for re-use as makeup water for cooling towers for air conditioning system and is used for flushing water-closets.
    • Care should be taken that it has no connection with any water supply line, tank or system used for domestic and drinking supply.

    ONE-PIPE SYSTEM

    • Suitable where toilet layouts and shafts are repetitive. Requires less space, and is economical.
    • The continuous flow of water from waste appliances in the pipe reduces the risk of blockage.
    • The system eliminates the need for a gully trap which requires constant cleaning.
    • Prevents pipe crossing problems and saves space.
    • It May not suitable if the flow is heavy.

    SINGLE STACK SYSTEM (without vent pipe)

    • Suitable where toilet layouts and shafts are repetitive and there is less space for pipes on the walls.

    SINGLE STACK SYSTEM (partially ventilated)

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