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·         The decline of the Roman Empire , the Romanesque style grew up in those countries of Western Europe which had been under the Roman rule
·         Geographical position determined many of the peculiarities of the style of each country
·         Apart from its Roman origin , the Romanesque style owed something to Byzantine art, which carried westwards along the great trade routes, by way of such centers as Venice, Ravenna, and Mersailles, and thus exerted  a formative influence on Romanesque


·         The use of local materials whether stone or brick, marble or terra cotta, as well as of ready- made columns and other features from old Roman buildings, accounts for many of the varying characteristics in each country over this wide area, with its different geological formations


·         Climatic conditions also contributed to differences of treatment north and south of the Alps and the Pyrenees
·         In duller climates of the north, window openings were enlarged to admit sufficient light
·         In south , windows were kept small to exclude the dazzling sunshine
·         The slope of the roof was also largely determined by climate
·         Flat roofs of the south gave way to high pitched roofs in the north to throw off rain and snow


·         Christianity, the chief source of education and culture, was gradually extending throughout Northern Europe
·         Erection of the church often resulted in the foundation of a city
·         Religious enthusiasm and zeal found their material expression in the magnificent cathedral churches and monastic buildings, which were an even more characteristic outcome of this period than were the castles of feudal chiefs
·         Monastic system gave an impulse to civilization, promoted new methods in agriculture, and exercised its influence on architecture
·         Until the middle of the twelfth century, science, letters, arts, and culture were the monopoly of the religious orders
·         Schools attached to monasteries trained youths for the service of religions
·         Monks and their pupils were often the designers of cathedrals
·         Up to the thirteenth century architecture was almost regarded as sacred science

The chief Monastic Orders were as follows:

1. Benedictine Order ( Black Monks )

·         Founded during the sixth century at Montecassino in South Italy by S. Benedict of Nursia who decreed that all architecture, painting and all branches of art were to be taught
·         All monasteries in England including those of Canterbury and Westminster belong to this order

2. Cluniac Order

·         Founded by Abbot Odo in 910 at Cluny, Burgundy
·         Plan had double transepts, a feature adopted in many English cathedrals

3. Cistercian Order  ( White Monks )     
·         Founded in 1098 at Citeaux by S. Stephen Harding and at Clairvaux by S. Bernard
·         After 1134  all Cistercian churches were dedicated to the virgin and had no separate Lady chapel
·         The typical church was divided transversely into three parts by screens, walls, or steps, and there were often no aisles
·         Transepts and eastern arm of the cross were short  so that the choir extended westward of the transept
·         There was an absence of towers and painted glass

4. Carthusian Order

·         Founded by S. Bruno at the Grande Chartreuse near Grenable in 1086
·         Carthusian architecture is  notably severe and unadorned
·         Two churches were provided, one for the monks and the other for the people
·         The typical feature was the great rectangular cloister surrounded by an arcade on to which opened the monks cells which were self contained and had their own gardens 

5. Secular Canons, serving principally cathedrals and collegiate churches

The Orders of the Cannons Regular

6.. Augustinian Cannons ( Black Cannons Regular )

·         Established in about 1050
·         Undertook both monastic and pastoral duties in houses often sited in towns
·         Differed a little bit from the Benedictine and was introduced into England in AD 1185

7. Premonstratensian Cannons ( White Cannons Regular )

·         Founded around 1100 by S. Norbert at Pre’montre in Picardy

8. Gilbertine Cannons

·         An exclusively English order founded in the twelfth (12th) century by S. Gilbert of Sempringham

The Military Orders

9. Knights of Templars

·         Founded in the 1119 to protect the Holy Places in Palestine and to safeguard the pilgrim routes in Jerusalem

10. Knights of Hospitallers

·         Organized in about 1113 ( the Knights of S. John of Jerusalem ) under the Augustinian rule

The Friars

11. Dominicans ( Preaching or Black Friars )
·         Founded by S. Dominic about 1170 and came to England about AD 1217
·         Fra Angelico was the best known member of this order which held high place in Christian art

12. Franciscans ( Mendicant or Grey Friars )

·         Founded by S. Francis of Assisi in AD 1209 and came to England in AD 1224
·         Roger Bacon was one of the most distinguished members of this order, which was noted for intellectual attainments

13. Carmelites ( White Friars )

·         Were expelled from Mt. Carmel by the Muslims in AD 1098 but only came to England in AD 1229
14. Austin Friars ( Hermits )
15. Friars of the Holy Trinity
16. The Crutched ( or Crouched ) Friars
16. Jesuits


·         The introduction of the system of feudal tenure, or the holding of land on condition of military service cause important changes in the social and political organization of the states
·         As civilization advanced the towns grew in importance but constant warfare rendered the condition of the  people  unsettled and craftsmanship was consequently at a low ebb
·         Monastic system played an important part in the life of the people of all countries especially in rural districts before the establishment of hospitals and when learning even of medicine was monopolized by the church
·         Freemasons by reason of privileges gradually acquired, did much to facilitate the building of churches


·         The breakup  of the Roman Empire in the West in AD 475 led the rise of independent states and nations of Europe
·         The election of the First Frankish King Charlemagne ( AD 799 ) as Holy Roman Emperor marks the beginning of a new era
·         From the fall of the Roman empire till the time of Charlemagne few buildings had been erected but he gathered artists and craftsmen around him, and before his death ( AD 814 ) he had great measure, restored the arts and civilization to western Europe

·         The term Romanesque includes those phases of  European architecture which were based on Roman art from the end of the Roman empire in Ad 475 up to the end of the twelfth century, when the pointed arch was introduced
·         The later Romanesque style of the tenth to the twelfth centuries was remarkable for the tentative use of the new constructive principles
o   This was the application of equilibrium to construction in strong contrast to that of inert stability as used by the Romans
·         The general architectural character of the Romanesque architecture is sober and dignified while picturesqueness depends on the grouping of towers and the projection of transepts and choir
·         Roman cross vaults were used throughout Europe till the beginning of the twelfth century, but they were heavy and difficult to construct and were gradually superseded by “rib and panel” vaulting 
·         Later on produced sexpartite and quadripartite vaulting
·         The Roman basilica had been the model for Early Christian churches, the plan of which was subject to new development during this period
o   The addition of transepts and the prolongation of the sanctuary or chancel made the church a well defined cross plan
o   Transepts were generally the same breadth as the nave, which was usually twice the width of the aisles
·         Cloisters in connection with monastic churches are often very elaborately treated with twisted columns, curved capitals and sculptured arches
·         Towers were either square, octagonal, or circular are the prominent features of Romanesque architecture
·         Roman methods of craftsmanship still influenced constructive art in Europe but technical skill in general was at a low ebb
·         Walls were roughly built and were relieved externally by buttresses formed as pilaster strips and connected at  the top by bonds of horizontal mouldings or by a series of semi circular arches on corbels
·         Attached columns,  with rough capitals supporting semi circular arches, formed wall arcading which was a frequent decorative feature
·         Arcades consisted of massive circular columns or piers which supported semi circular arches
·         Doors and window openings are very characteristic, with jams or sides formed in series of receding moulded planes known as orders
·         A rose or wheel window was often placed over the principal west door
·         Glass does not appear to have come in general use till the ninth century
·         The general employment of vaulting in the eleventh century especially over the side aisles may have been due to the desire to fire proof the building
·         The form of arch employed in vaulting was semicircular but sometimes raised or stilted
·         Romanesque architects began to use flying buttresses under the aisle roof to counteract the trust of a vaulted nave roof but it was left for Gothic architects to place these flying buttresses outside the aisle roof and to weight them with pinnacles
·         Columns were either cylindrical or of stumpy proportions or formed as massive piers and the shafts were treated with flutings of vertical, spiral or trellis form or sometimes carved with ornaments
·         Variations of Corinthian or Ionic capitals are used and in later times in the form of a cushioned ( cubiform ) shape with a twisted shaft known as “ escallop “
·         Other columns shafts used were
a. Flutted        b. Zigzag          c. Chevron       d. Wreath 
·         Mouldings are elaborately carved
·         The base of the column is generally an adaptation of the old Attic form
·         Ornaments were either entered vegetable or animal form and were treated conventionally
·         Carvings and sculpture were often rough
·         For interiors frescoes were more usual than mosaic
·         Stained glass was as yet little used 




·         The basilican type of church was closely adhered during this period
·         Naves were divided from the aisles by antique columns
·         Italians were slow to adopt a new system of construction and preferred to concentrate on beauty and delicacy of ornamental detail
·         Architectural character was much governed by classic tradition
·         The most pronounced features of the façades were the “ornamental arcades”
·         Battlemented parapets primarily designed for defense was used as purely decorative feature
·         Used marble facing for walls
·         Churches are covered with timber roofs ornamented with bright coloring
·         Campanili or bell towers which seem to have originated in the sixth century, for carrying the bells which summoned the Christian to prayer now became an integral part of the church group
·         Arcades were universal, doors and windows are small and unimportant
·         Mouldings were roughly imitations of old classic mouldings


·         The most important development took place in Lombardy
·         The principal innovation was the development of the ribbed vault which brought about the adoption of many new constructive features
·         Churches are basilican type, but the naves as well as sides aisles are vaulted and have external roofs
·         Aisles are often two storeys in height while thick walls between the side chapels act as buttress to resist the pressure of the vault
·         The flat severe entrance façades stretch across the whole church thus masking externally the division of nave and aisles 
·         There is often central “projecting porch” with columns standing on the backs of crouching lions
·         Rose window light the nave area
·         The gable is outlined with raking arcades which had originated in gthe eaves arcades round the apses
·         The general character became less refined owing to the increased use of stones and bricks instead of marbles
·         Ornaments shows a departure from Classic precedents and portrays with an element of the grotesque
·         The Comacine masters, a privileged guild of architects and sculptors originating in Como, carried out church building and characteristic decorations during the eleventh century not only in the North but also in other parts of Italy


·         Architectural character is greatly influenced by Byzantine, Moslem and Norman rule
·         Byzantine influence is evident in the mosaic decoration and predominates the plans of many buildings
·         Moslem influence is especially seen in the application of coloured marbles and in the use of stilted pointed arches
·         Norman character is displayed in the planning and construction of cathedrals which are cruciform in plan and decorated with mosaics and has nave arcade of stilted pointed arches
·         Low lanterns at crossing of the nave and transept are marked features
·         Lateral walls are occasionally decorated with flat pilaster strips connected horizontally by small arches springing from the corbels
·         Domes rather than vault s were adopted
·         Timber roofs are the rule in Sicily under the Islamic influence and have stalactite ceilings, rich in design and colour
·         Mouldings are specially characterized by grace of contour and intricacy of carving
·         Elaborately modeled bronze doors are characteristic externally
·         Coloured mosaic add to the beauty of the interiors
·         Colour in spreading masses of geometrical design was the predominant note of internal decoration      



·         One of the finest under Romanesque period and has a strong marked individuality
·         It resembles other early basilican churches in plan: with long rows of columns connected by arches, double aisles, and nave which has the usual timber roof
·         The exterior has bands of red and white marble
·         The ground storey is faced with wall arcading
·         The entrance façade is thrown into relief by tiers of open arcades which rise one above the other right unto the gable end 
·         The transept with an apse at each end were an advance on the simple basilican plan
·         The elliptical dome over the crossing or the intersection of nave and transepts
·         Concentrates on delicacy of its ornamental feature rather than on any new structural development


·         It is a circular tower
·         16.00 m in diameter rising in eight storeys of encircling arcades
·         The upper part of the tower now overhangs its base more than 4.20 meters and it has a very unstable appearance
·         The belfry was not added until 1350


·         Was designed by Dioti Salvi
·         On a circular plan with central space or nave 18.30 m in diameter
·         Separated by tower piers and eight columns from the surrounding two storeyed aisle which makes the building nearly 39.30 meters in diameter
·         Externally it is surrounded on the lower storey by half columns, connected by semi circular arches under one of which is the door
·         The structure is crowned by hemispherical roof, through which penetrates a truncated cone capped by a small dome covering the central space
·         If there were a lower internal cupola, it would resemble the constructive scheme of S. Paul’s, London
·         This baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the Church of S. Donato at Zara, Dalmatia


·         Rebuilt on the site of an earlier cathedral
·         Noted for its later Gothic church , Il Paradiso


·         Founded by the great S. Ambrose in the fourth century
·          partly rebuilt with dome and vault in the twelfth century
·         Here S. Augustine was baptized, emperor Theodosius was excommunicated and Lombard kings and Germanic emperors were crowned
·         The plan includes the only existing atrium among Lombard churches, a narthex flanked by towers, vaulted nave and aisles with an octagon over the crossing, triforium gallery, raised choir over the crypt and an apse
·         The interior is severely plain and impressive 


·         Is a notable instance of a treatment which is in  advance on the divisions marked only by piers
·         The church is cruciform in plan with well defined transepts and a raised choir under which is a vaulted crypt
·         The side aisles which are two storeys in height are also vaulted in square compartments
·         The flat façade shows little play of light and shade with its three simple recessed portals and four vertical pilaster strips from ground to gable, almost akin to buttress
·         The wide spreading gable stretches across nave ad aisles and is emphasized by a characteristic raking arcaded gallery


·         Has a simple façade which is stern in simplicity
·         The fine projecting porch has two free standing columns which rest on the backs of the crouching beast and support a semi circular vault
·         Above is the great wheel window which lights the nave and is one of the earliest in Italy
·         The interior has arcade of compound piers with uncarved capitals and the nave shaft is carried up as if to support the vault
·         Has no triforium but with clerestory
·         The choir 2.10 meters above the nave has a high pointed fourteenth century vault and an apse and beneath is the crypt, in seven aisles, with the shrine of S. Zeno
·         The campanile is detached as usual in Italy has no buttresses is made of alternate courses of marble and bricks
·         The sturdy tower formerly belonged to a residence of the German Emperors and is finished with Ghibelline battlements


·         Are octagonal and modeled on that of Constantine, Rome
·         Represent a period in Christianity when baptismal rite was carried out only three times a year – Easter, Pentecost and Epiphany

·         Sometimes known as the “Casa di Crescencio” is an instance of the degraded civic architecture of the period
·         Said to be the only private house in Rome older than the fifteenth century


·         Stands on the heights southwest of Palermo
·         Is the most splendid of all monuments erected under Norman rule in Sicily
·         The plan is a combination of an Early Christian basilican church in its western part and quasi Byzantine in its eastern part
·         The nave columns have capitals of Byzantine form with dosseret block encrusted with mosaic to support pointed arches
·         Walls are covered with mosaics in gold and colour representing scenes from biblical history with a figure of Christ in the apse
·         The interior is solemn and grand, an effect produced by the severity of the design, enhanced by the coloured decoration
·         The low, oblong central lantern and the antique bronze doors add to the beauty and distinction o this famous church
·         The cloisters, the only remaining portion of the Benedictine monastery are the finest of the style


·         The chapel in the Royal palace
·         Served as the model for Monreal cathedral


·         Is a three storeyed Norman castle with battlemented parapet
·         Shows the influence of Saracenic art
·         The vestibule is rich in marble columns and coloured tiles
·         Stalactite vaults over the alcoves recall the glories o the Alhambra, Granada



·         Romanesque architecture in France dates from the eight to the twelfth century
·         The character differs in the North and south


·         Churches were usually cruciform in plan and frequently had naves covered with barrel vaults
·         Buttresses are internal and form the division between chapels which flank the nave
·         Cloisters are treated with utmost decoration/ elaboration and form a special feature in the plan of many churches
·         Circular churches are rare, but the development of the semi circular east end as an ambulatory with radiating chapels is very common
·         Remarkable for richly decorated church façade and graceful cloisters
·         Adaptation of old Roman architectural features is remarkable
·         Aisleless naves covered with domes on pendentives are common in Acquitaine and Anjou
·         Nave wall arcades of aisleless church are semi circular with mouldings in recesses and orders
·         Cloister arcades are elaborated with coupled columns
·         Doorways have recessed jambs
·         Narrow windows with semi circular heads and wide splays inwards suffice to admit light
·         Roofs needed to be low in pitch
·         Piers were derived from the Roman square pier with attached columns


·         Plans are basilican with nave and aisles
·         Square compartments tom produce high nave vault is a common practice
·         Roman influence is lesser in significance due to few surviving Roman remains
·         Western façade of churches, especially in Normandy are distinguished by the introduction of two flanking towers
·         Plain massive side walls  with flat buttresses emphasizes the richness of the façade
·         Naves are covered with ribbed vault which are often sexpartite and in square compartments
·         Nave arcades are spanned by semi circular arches which are repeated in deep triforia
·         Imposing western doorways with sculptured tympana are great trademarks
·         Windows with semi circular heads are sometimes group together and enclosed in a larger arch
·         The most important development in stone vaulting technique took place with the introduction of the ribbed and panel vaulting
·         Vaults were usually covered with wooden roof, finished with slates and steep pitch to throw of s now and water
·         Massive walls of rubble faced with square stones
·         Sculptured and moulded ornament is concentrated on wall arcades
·         Buttresses were wide strips of slight projection or half round shafts
·         Towers were generally square with pyramidal or conical roof
·         Mouldings executed in stone are courser than those marble in Italy


·         In Aquitaine is an aisleless church crowned by two domes on pendentives
·         Somewhat resembles S. Irene, Constantinople


·         In Aquitaine is Greek cross in plan
·         Closely resembles S. Mark, Venice
·         Is covered with five spheroidal domes, elongated towards the top, indicating an Eastern influence due to the trade with Byzantium
·         The only existing Greek cross church plan with cupolas in France
·         Was the prototype of other churches with cupola


·         Near Arles has probably the most elaborate sculptured façade in Provence
·         With three porches connected by colonnades perhaps suggesting the façade of S. Mark, Venice


·         Formed part of the most famous monastic establishment in Burgundy
·         It is the longest Romanesque church in France
·         136.00 meters with nave and choir, each with double aisles, double transept and a chevet of five apsidal termination
·         Its pointed arches are the one of the earliest in Europe


·         In Burgundy, has a most remarkable narthex with nave and aisles crowned
·         It is believed to have the earliest pointed cross vault in Europe


·         Was probably the first important Norman church
·         It has a nave of seven bays of which five are still intact, divided into arcade, triforium and clearstory


·         Known as S. Etienne
·         Also known as the Men’s abbey
·         One of the many fine churches in Normandy of this period which were the product of the prosperity and power of the Norman dukes
·         It was commenced by William the Conqueror
·         It is a vaulted basilican type which was developed into the complete Gothic in the thirteenth century
·         It may have been modeled on the  Romanesque cathedral of Speyer
·         Its original eastern apse is superseded in 1166 by the characteristic chevet
·         It has nine spires, a remarkable instance of the use of spires as architectural features


·         Also known as the women’s abbey
·         Founded by Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror
·         Has fine western façade with two towers in arcaded stages


·         Was built by Abbe’ Suger
·         Is one of the few buildings of this style in Ile de France
·         It is  the burial place of the French kings
·         It is the first building to adapt Gothic features



·         Dates back from the eighth to the thirteenth century
·         The style owing to historical influence bears striking similarity to that of Lombardy
·         It is a combination of Carolingian tradition and Lombard influence
·         Church plans are peculiar for having both western and eastern apses
o   Eastern apses may have been used for the abbot and the monks
o   Western apse for the bishop and the laity
o   Western apse may be the survival of the detached baptistery which had been usual in earlier churches 
·         The general character is picturesque  by reason of numerous circular and octagonal turrets, polygonal domes, and arcaded galleries under the eaves
·         Cloisters often have small columns supporting arches in groups of three
·         Doorways are frequently in the side aisles instead of the west front or transept
·         Windows are often single but occasionally grouped and sometimes have mid wall shafts
·         Shafts and capitals in doorways were frequently elaborately carved with figures of men birds and animals
·         General absence of mouldings in the nave arcade
·         Carvings in bands are employed
·         Lines of coloured bricks were use externally in North Germany
·         Choir at western end, often accommodated in western apse
·         Three apse plan in trefoil in 11th and 12th century



·         Built by the Emperor Charlemagne as his royal tomb house
·         Resembles S. Vitale, Ravenna
·         The entrance is flanked by staircase turrets, leads into a polygon of sixteen sides, 32.00 meters in diameter
·         The building is of great interest as the prototype of other similar churches in Germany
·         Coronation place of the Holy Roman Emperors


·         In modern Switzerland
·         A typical Benedictine monastery of the period
·         Design by “Eginhart” – Charlemagne’s royal architect
·         A double apse church with cloisters, abbot lodging, school, refectory, dormitory, guest house, dispensary, infirmaries, granaries, bake house, orchard and cemetery


·         One of the series of trefoil churches in Cologne
·         Plan forms a broad nave, aisles half its width, western transepts, and a triapsal choir
·         A low octagonal tower gives dignity to the effective external grouping
·         The entrance is by a northern porch and there is no great portal as in France
·         The west end being occupied by a tower, flanked by stair turrets, crowned by a typical Rhenish roof


·         Apsidal at both ends
·         With eastern and western octagons while one vaulting bay of the nave corresponds with the two of the aisles
·         Twin circular towers containing stairs flanked the eastern and western apses
·         The crossing of the nave and transepts is covered with a low octagonal tower crowned by a pointed roof
·         Entrance are in the aisles, a positioned favored in Germany and England


·         Probably the earliest Romanesque church with apse at both ends


·         An example of brick architecture in North Germany
·         Gothic choir and aisles were added in 1335 thus converting it into a “hall church”

7. Maria Laach, Abbey

·         A Benedictine church
·         Built chiefly of local lava and the exterior is a fine grouping of six towers, double transepts and east and west apse
·          The plan differs from other churches because on either side of the western apse which is used as tomb house, are entrances from the cloistered atrium

( 9TH to 13 th Century )


·         Early Spanish Romanesque is greatly influence by Visigothic and Moorish art
o   The use of horseshoe arch
o   The use of decorative devices such as cable mouldings, and sone Syrian motifs ( rosettes, circumscribed stars )
o   Churches built for Christian communities under Moslem control were principally upon mosque tradition
o   Church plan includes both basilican and Greek cross forms
o   Chapels attached to the eastern arm of the church as “prosthesis” or diaconicon
·         Early Spanish Romanesque churches have naves and aisles were covered with continuous barrel vault
·         Most monastic buildings  have square bell towers
·         French ideas were introduce in 1050 which led to the rise of Franco – Spanish Romanesque
·         The first appearance of mature and seemly vaulted Romanesque Spanish church architecture appeared in Leon after the middle of the 11th century
o   Church general form was aisled
o   Barrel vaulted nave
o   Barrel or groined aisle vaults
o   No clear story or a very low one
·         Twelfth century churches in Castile and Leon include several examples without aisles, but with a central cupola supported upon squinches or upon pendentives
·         In general matured Romanesque architecture in Spain and Portugal is characterized by the ff:
-          Both cathedrals and large abbey churches were product of many accretions of different periods, particularly flanking chapels in later styles
-          Most churches are built of stone. In areas where brick is used, the bricks are similar to Roman bricks
-          Exterior of brick churches are decorated with tiers of shallow blind arcading and square topped niches
-          Small churches abound across the area, usually having an aisles nave and projecting apse and a bell turret on one gable
-          Larger c churches often have a wide turret extending across the upper façade with a gallery of openings holding bells
-          Larger monastic churches often have short transept and three eastern apses, the larger off the nave and a smaller flanking apse off each transept
-          Lateral arcaded porches are a distinctive regional characteristic of small chapels
-          Larger churches sometimes have a similar narthex at the west as at S. Maria, Ripoll
-          Portal are typically deep set, round topped and with many mouldings as at La Seu Vella, Lleida
-          Portals that are set with in porches may be surrounded by rich figurative carvings as at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
-          Free standing towers with increasing openings in each stage like those of Italy occur with small churches
-          Small churches are sometimes barrel vaulted and are roofed with stone slabs lying directly on the vault
-          Wider spaces have timber roofs of low profile, as timber was scarce
-          Larger churches of such as the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, have barrel vaults, sometimes with transverse arches marking the bays
-          Abbey churches of later French foundation have ribbed vaults   
-          Larger monastic churches and cathedrals have nave and aisles and follow French plans, including chevets as at Avila
-          The crossing of a large church sometimes has an octagonal tower or dome supported on squinches as at S. Maria Ripoll and the Cathedral of S. Maria d’ Urgell
-          Externally, many large churches are fortresslike such as Lisbon Cathedral and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra in Portugal
-          Rose window with pierced tracery similar to those that occur in Pre-Romanesque churches of Oviedo are a feature in some facade  

·         Magnificent military architecture resulted from the necessity of security both against internal revolt and external threat
·         Most Romanesque structures in Holy land were military buildings, castles and fortifications
·         Hospice buildings in Palestine usually included a fortified church
·         Castles of the Crusaders were of three kinds, each having a specific function, which depended on geographical situation

a. Pilgrim forts

·         Sited and designed to secure the routes from coastal ports to Jerusalem, principally by way of Joppa ( Tel Aviv ) and Ascalon
·         They were generally designed on a Byzantine pattern derived from the Ancient Roman castrum or legionary fort
·         Installation include a thin curtain wall with rectangular corner towers of small projection, a large fosse or ditch, and an outer earth rampart
·         These forts were of no very great strength, and relied upon relatively plentiful man power

b. Coastal fortification

·         Were fortified to secure the sea links with the West
·         They took the form either of a bastide town – a civil settlement under the protection of a castle ( which had contact directly with the countryside as at Giblet ), or with only the sea, as at Sidon, which could be isolated by a cut sea dyke) – or of coastal castle with no dependent township like Chastel Pelerin 

c. Strategic Inland Castle

·         The principal function of these great castles were :
1. to protect the coast road as in case of Margat, above Baniyas in Syria
2. to safeguard mountain passes ,as Safita and the Krak of the Knights, which commanded the Homs Gap
3. to secure the river valley routes as in the case of Beaufort
4. to provide visual command of the approach routes across the eastern frontier, as in Subeibe, on the slopes of Mt. Hermon


1. Old Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

·         A pilgrimage center of importance, is similar to many respects to the church of S. Sernin, Toulouse
·         Was unequalled in magnificence and maturity in Spain in its time
·         The tomb of S. James, son of Zebedee, was recognized in 1813
·         The plan is cruciform, aisled , with galleries which run continuously around the building
·         The only church in Spain with ambulatory and radiating chapels
·         The high vault is a barrel with transverse arches and the aisle vaults are groined
·         The galleries are  covered with a half barrel opposing the high vault
·         The interior survives largely unaltered, except for the loss of the twelfth century coro at the east end of the nave
·         Externally , the east end is largely concealed and the only original façade is that of the south transept

2. S. Juan de Baños de Cerrato

·         Is the royal finest surviving Visigothic church
·         Planned in three aisled basilica with a four bay nave
·         Originally with a transept with eastern chapels at the outer ends
·         The nave arcade has horseshoe arches springing from varied Corinthian columns
·         Arched window openings are small with horseshoe heads

3. S. Julian de los Prados ( Santullano ) , near Oviedo

·         Is among the best preserved of the early Asturian churches
·         Somewhat restored not long before the Spanish civil war
·         Has a typical basilican form with a wide transverse bay forming a kind of transept, outer lateral chapels, a square sanctuary with flanking chapels
·         Only the eastern chapels are vaulted
·         Timber ceilings elsewhere include some original decorated beams

4. S. Maria de Naranco

·         Was built by Ramiro I next to his palace  near Oviedo
·         Ably represents the structural advances in church architecture of the Visigothic kingdom of Asturia
·         Has a long rectangular nave with open tribunes at both ends, over a crypt
·         The building is likely to have been intended principally to provide for sacred royal ceremonial
·         No clear indication of its having had any kind of sanctuary

5. S.Miguel de Escalada, near Leon

·         Is the finest and the largest of the Mozarabic churches
·         Founded by Cordoban refugees and relies upon some of the craft tradition of the mosque of Cordoba
·         Basilican plan with a nave of five bays, and fine horseshoe arcades on antique columns
·         The three eastern apses are of horseshoe form in plan, with lobbed domical vaults
·         The high timber ceiling is later in date and decorated in Mudejar manner

6. S. Maria, Ripoll

·         Is the finest of the eleventh century Early Romanesque churches
·         Has a double aisled basilican nave of seven bays
·         Outer arcades alternate to produce double bays in the outer aisles in Lombardic manner
·         The bold transept is modeled on the basilican church bema and there are seven eastern apses

7. La Lugareja, Ar’evalo

·         Is the finest example of Mudejar work in brick
·         A Cistercian church
·         Has many Lombardic devices
·         Has a bold central tower enclosing a lantern cupola on pendentives

8. S. Tirso, Sahagun

·         One of the earliest brick Mudejar churches
·         Has much of the eleventh century character of Catalan Romanesque
·         Moorish influence includes the horseshoe headed blind arcading to the apses, set in rectangular panels

9. S. Martin de Formista

·         The only complete example of the Spanish pilgrimage style, with a four bay nave, shallow transept, and three parallel apse

10. Chateau de Mer, Sidon

·         In Lebanon
·         Is the best surviving example of a coastal Crusader castle
·         Separated from its\dependent township by a sea dyke crossed only by a later causeway
·         Capable of independent defense after the town had been invested
·         Still posses substantial remains of a two storey keep, imposing land gate with decoratively carved box machicolations, large storage and domestic building within the ward

11. Giblet

·         On the site of the Phoenician port of Byblos
·         Extensively refortified during the twelfth century
·         Ancient defenses were rebuilt as a new curtain wall with square towers and a substantial two storey keep

12. Chastel Pélérin ( Pilgrims’ Castle ), Atlit

·         Was built by the Templars  with the help of the Teutonic knights and of the many pilgrims to whom it derives its name
·         Castle now in ruins, but plan is clearly discernable
·         Stands upon a peninsula commanding the approach to one of the principal passes between the coast and the Palestinian interior

13. Saone

·         At the north end of the Gebel Alawi
·         Was built on a site previously fortified by the Greeks\in Byzantine fashion
·         With a thin outer curtain wall punctuated with shallow rectangular towers, and a keep commanding the most vulnerable part of the curtain

14. Krak of the Knights

·         Described by T. E. Lawrence as the best preserved and wholly most admirable castle in the world
·         Is the eastern most of a chain of five castles sited so as to secure the Homs Gap
·         The plan is completely concentric, having two lines of defense, the inner ramparts lying close to the outer and continuously dominating them 

1. Diaconicon – the vestry or sacristy in the early Christian churches
2. Prothesis – the part of the church where credence table stands
3. Hospice – house of shelter for travelers
4. Mudejar – a Spanish Christian architecture in purely Moslem style
5. Mozarabic –a style evolved by Christians under Moorish influence in Spain from late 9th to 11th century

( 1ST to12TH CENTURY )


1.  Anglo Saxon Period

·         Domestic building was probably largely dependent upon the use of timber
·         The masonry of church building from about the middle of the seventh century show signs of dependence on timber prototypes
o   Long and short work in quoins
o   Pilaster strips derived from liesenen
o   Triangular headed openings
o   Blind arcading
o   Turned balusters
o   Midwall shafts
·         Central and western axial towers were occasionally terminated in a form of short hipped spire springing from each apex of the four gables on the tower faces

2. Norman Period

·         Churches have very long naves due to influence coming from Cluny as at Norwich  ( 14 bays ), S. Albans ( 13 bays ) and Winchester ( 12 bays )
·         Chancels of cathedrals and abbey churches are also very long
·         Double eastern transept plan as at Canterbury
·         Features imported form  Normandy are the typical Benedictine plan having three apses as at Durham and Peterborough
·         One apse transept survived at Norwich, two at Gloucester and four in the eastern apses at Canterbury 
·         The multiplicity of apsidal chapels in monastic churches was necessitated by the growing demand for facilities  for the individual offices of a Benedictine community
·         Both secular and monastery churches have central lantern tower over the crossing as S. Alban and Norwich
·         The earliest Anglo Norman groin vaults are those over irregular crypt spaces ant Winchester and Gloucester
·         The earliest great church designed initially and entirely with a rib vaulting system was Durham Cathedral
·         Nearly every large Norman church has a later Gothic high vault except at Peterborough and Ely cathedral which have retained trussed wooden ceiling
·         Mouldings generally are enriched by conventional carving with increased vigor through late 11th and 12th centuries
·         Doors and windows have jambs in square recesses or orders enclosing nook shafts
·         Side porches are common and are often the usually mode of entrance, the western portals only being opened for major festivals
·         Blind arcading is used as a major decorative feature
·         Windows are small and internal jambs are deeply splayed
·         Piers are short and massive and either cylindrical or polygonal
·         Compound piers  with rectangular recesses containing shafts as at Peterborough and Durham were often used alternately with cylindrical piers
·         Shape of the pier was influenced by the vaulting shafts which they supported
·         Capitals are usually cubiform, or cushion type sometimes carved and scalloped the tympana over many doorways as at Ely are sculptured with effective though rough representation of scriptural subject 


·         Romanesque architecture did not appear in Scandinavia until British and Continental European influence upon church building became effective toward the middle of the 17th century
·         The smaller 12th century churches are frequently based upon two cell plan similar to those of both Celtic and Gallic origin in England
·         Twelfth century cathedral churches have more mature Romanesque character
·         The wooden stave churches of Norway represent a type that was once common across Northern Europe, but elsewhere have been destroyed or replaced
·         Denmark has seven rotunda churches, which have a circular nave, divided internally and have projecting chancel and apse as at Nylars
·         Chancels and apse are constructed as small intersecting circles as at Osterlars church
·         Bulky west towers with stepped gables are typical of Denmark
·         In Denmark, the west tower may extend across the whole width of the church forming a westwerk as at Aa church  
·         Small stone churches in Norway and Sweden have a short wide nave, square chancel, an apse and a western tower with pyramidal shingled spire as at Hove church
·         Large central towers occur in Norway as at Old Aker Church
·         Free standing bell towers are found, often with half timbered upper section
·         Openings are generally small and simple
·         Many doors have carved tympanum as at Vestervig Church
·         Most churches have timber roofed naves, but ribbed vaulting over smaller spaces such as the chancel is common
·         Arcades may be of simple rectangular piers as at Ribe, Denmark
·         Fully developed Romanesque arcades of three stages occur in churches built under English or german influence as at Nidaros Cathedral
·         Large churches may have paired towers at the western end as at Mariakirken, Bergen



Three types of Cathedral in England and Wales
1. Cathedral of Old Foundation
- were served by secular clergy and not affected by the reforms of Henry VIII

a. York                                                            h. Hereford
b. Litchfield                                         i. London
c. Wells                                                            j. Llandaff      
d. Exeter                                              k. Bangor
e. Salisbury                                          l. S. David
f. Chichester                                        m. S. Asaph
g. Lincoln

2. Cathedral of Monastic Foundation
- originally served by regular clergy or monks
- were reconstituted at the Dissolution of the Monasteries as chapters of secular canons 
a. Canterbury                                       h. Carlisle
b. Durham                                           i. Peterborough
c. Rochester                                         j. Gloucester
d. Worchester                                      k. Chester
e. Winchester                                       l. Oxford
f. Norwich                                           m. Bristol
g. Ely

3. Cathedral of New Foundation
- are those to which bishop have been more recently appointed

a. Ripon                                                           h. Chelmsford
b. Southwell                                         i. Southwark
c. New Castles                                     j. S. Albans
d. Wakefield                                        k. S. Edmonds
e. Manchester                                      l. Coventry
f. Birmingham                                     m. Liverpool
g. Truro                                                            n. Guilford


1. Sancta Maria Minor, Lund

·         Now in Sweden
·         Is probably the earliest example of the timber stave churches
·         Of the simplest type, it is nearly basilican in plan form, having two cells with outer palisade walls constructed of halved and splined logs

2. Holtalen Church

·         Now preserved in the Folk Museum at Trondheim
·         Is the most typical of the numerous and persistent type of small church
·         Of the late eleventh century, it has a two cell plan and stout timber columns at the corners framed into sills

3. Borgund Church

·         The most celebrated stave church in Scandinavia
·         Illustrates the full development of the structural design of the stave church
·         The chancel has an eastern apse of later date and the upper gables are embellished with carved dragons heads
·         Internal decoration is limited to carved heads as capitals to the main columns and foliated carvings of the bracing timber above the level of the aisled wall

4. Lund Cathedral

·         Then in Denmark, now in Sweden
·         Was built after 1103 to an enlarged design of Donatus, probably a Lombard architect
·         The plan is organized on a double bay system possibly modeled upon that of Speyer Cathedral
·         Incorporates a western tribune and towers begun about 1150
·         The arcaded eastern apse is strongly Lombardic and probably earlier than comparable Rhineland examples of the same influence
·         Richly decorated capitals, arches and tympana reflect a continuing Nordic tradition 



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